Tocotrienol protects brain cells at very low concentration, at concentration way below what would have in the bloodstream after taking in orally. This low concentration is achievable via oral, hence does not require injection. Tocotrienol is a more potent form of vitamin E in protecting brain cells. Research has been started to figure out the pathways by which tocotrienol confers protection. Tocotrienol involves in 3 to 4 novel pathways of neurodegeneration that tocotrienol helps to elucidate and these molecular checkpoints are published in the literature.
Below are some of the relevant references:
Novel pathways of neurodegeneration:
- Sen C.K., et.al (2000). Molecular basis of vitamin E action. Tocotrienol potently inhibits glutamate-induced pp60(c-Src) kinase activation and death of HT4 neuronal cells. J Biol Chem.
- Khanna, S., et.al (2003). Molecular basis of vitamin E action: tocotrienol modulates 12-lipoxygenase, a key mediator of glutamate-induced neurodegeneration. J Biol Chem.
- Khanna, S., et.al (2010). Nanomolar vitamin E alpha-tocotrienol inhibits glutamate-induced activation of phospholipase A2 and causes neuroprotection. J Neurochem.
- Khanna S., et.al (2013). Loss of miR-29b following acute ischemic stroke contributes to neural cell death and infarct size. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab.